Heavy metals transfer from the atmosphere to the sea in the Southern Bight of the North Sea
Dedeurwaerder, H.; Dehairs, F.A.; Qian, X.; Nemery, B. (1985). Heavy metals transfer from the atmosphere to the sea in the Southern Bight of the North Sea, in: Van Grieken, R. et al. (Ed.) Progress in Belgian Oceanographic Research: Proceedings of a symposium held at the Palace of Academies Brussels, 3-5 March 1985. pp. 170-177
The concentration of some trace and major metals (Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, Fe, Mn) and of some important alkali and earth alkal; elements considered to be reference elements of either marine or continental origin, have been measured in the atmosphere (total and particle size fractionated) and in wet and dry fall-out from the sampling station West-Hinder (51 231N-O2 26'E). This station is situated in a coastal marine environment potentially influenced by inputs of continental origin. Total aerosol samples were collected onto Whatman 41 filters with high-volume samplers. Size fractionated aerosols samples are taken with a 5 stages high-volume cascade impactor plus back-up filter. All samplings were performed at well defined conditions of wind-direction and wind-speed to avoid any contamination. Data of wind-direction were processed by an electronic control system which activated the air samplers if the winds were from a preset sector. Atmospheric dry fall-out is tentatively collected on vaselinated plexiglass surface. Rainwater is manually collected with polyethylene funnels. Field measurements of dry fall-out are compared to calculated fluxes based on a theoretical model. Wet fall-out is estimated from rainwater concentrations and measured annual rainfall at sea. These results suggest that the dominant transfer process of heavy metals from atmosphere to sea occurs by rain.
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